Design and 3D Printing of Lightweight Advanced Energy Harvesters Made of Smart Materials
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is classified as a revolutionary, manufacturing technology. As the most abundant natural polymer, cellulose and its many derivatives have been widely studied for many applications. The combination of 3D printable polymers with cellulose-based feedstocks is therefore of critical interest. This review highlights many studies on 3D printing applications of plant-derived cellulose and its derivatives. Potential materials include cellulose ethers/esters, microcrystalline cellulose, nanocellulose materials, and other products. Focus will be placed on their roles and functions in 3D printing processes and the performance of the resultant printed objects. A feasible methodology to compose wood fiber reinforced composites as the filament material is developed. The outlook for future work is also provided, to underscore critical issues and opportunities.